ABOUT PROCESSOR MICROARCHITECTURE
INTEL PROCESSOR MICROARCHITECTURE CODENAME SANDY BRIDGE
Intel quietly finishes what it started nearly a decade ago. When running a single threaded application, the Core i7-2600K will power gate three of its four cores and turbo the fourth core as high as 3.8GHz. Even with two
cores active, the 32nm chip can run them both up to 3.7GHz. The only thing keeping us from 4GHz is a lack of competition to be honest. Relying on single-click motherboard auto-overclocking alone, the 2600K is easily at 4.4GHz. For those of you who want more, 4.6-4.8GHz is within reason. All on air, without any exotic cooling.
The next-generation Intel® microarchitecture codename Sandy Bridge is an incredible leap in processor integration and manufacturing. Introduced in the 2nd generation Intel® Core™ processor family, some of the highlights of this new microarchitecture include:
* Manufactured entirely on Intel® 32nm process technology, delivering yet another leap in performance and energy efficiency beyond previous generation process technologies.
* All cores plus graphics are integrated on a single chipset, enabling new levels of visual experiences on a PC.
* Even more performance boost when you need it with Intel® Turbo Boost 2.0.
* Yet another step in increased efficiency by intelligently matching performance to workloads, while optimizing power efficiency across cores and graphics engine.
Despite the heavy spending on an on-die GPU, the focus of Sandy Bridge is still improving CPU performance: each core requires 55 million transistors. A complete quad-core Sandy Bridge die measures 216mm2, only 2mm2 larger than the old Core 2 Quad 9000 series (but much, much faster). With the CPU comes a new platform as well. In order to maintain its healthy profit margins Intel breaks backwards compatibility (and thus avoids validation) with existing LGA-1156 motherboards, Sandy Bridge requires a new LGA-1155 motherboard equipped with a 6-series chipset. You can re-use your old heatsinks however.
Sandy Bridge unifies processor cores, memory controller, last-level cache (LLC), and graphics and media processing. Such tight integration enables a host of performance and efficiency improvements, such as:
* Fast access by cores and graphics to shared data in the last-level cache accelerates graphics processing.
* Fewer buses over which data and signaling must travel mean faster processing.
* More memory bandwidth for the cores boosts system performance.
Chipset Intel P67
Launch of the second generation of Intel processors Sandy Bridge, also accompanied the release of new chipsets. Because the Sandy Bridge can only be used on the new chipset, which consists of Intel P67, H67, H61, Q67, and B65 (for desktop platforms). To accommodate the new processor, Intel also uses a new socket LGA1155 (not LGA1156 which has come first). Socket can not be used on air-socket LGA1156 processors. However, you still can use the HSF socket socket LGA1155 LGA1156 on this. Sandy Bridge architecture itself is also different because Intel has been changed in order to get better performance with less power consumption.
Intel considers that the previous chipset is “stuck” so that the architecture changed. This change affects the turn of the chipset and the newer socket to match the Sandy Bridge. Therefore, in this edition, InfoKomputer will discuss the Intel P67 chipset aimed at the enthusiast.
Intel P67 is a single chipset, which means combining functions that are usually divided between the northbridge and southbridge chips. Sandy Bridge processors that can ditandem with Intel P67 chipset includes the Intel Core i3, i5, i7 marked with 2xxx series (eg Intel Core i7-i5-2600 or 2500). Now Intel is supporting the port SATA3 (6 Gbps). Other features are the same as the previous chipset generation.
Initially the presence of the Intel P67 chipset had experienced barriers, because the discovery of a bug that could make Intel a panic. Officially, Intel explained that it had discovered a bug for the SATA ports on Intel chipsets P67/H67 series. On the chipset has 4 SATA2 ports (3 Gbps) and 2 ports SATA3 (6 Gbps), which each have separate PPL.
Well, the problem occurs on port SATA2 (3 Gbps Clock PPL), which turned out to be too high voltage, causing current leakage. This resulted in decreased performance and instability on the port. Fortunately, the port SATA3 not encountered a similar problem. This bug is also present in the motherboard revision is only the beginning.
To close this bug, Intel immediately move to soon release an improved version of the chipset. Improvement was marked by the release of the latest version which is marked with revision B3. To find out you can use CPU-Z application.
AMD T40R & AMD T40 E Chip APU AMD G-Series
AMD has shed its reputation as a strong company that makes chips, but the thirst for power. Therefore, AMD has launched AMD C-50 dual core processors that require 9 Watt power that could be dealt head-to-head with the latest Intel Atom chip for netbooks in terms of performance and power consumption, where AMD also launched the previous generation processor E-350 AMD that still uses 18W power which is already 50% more power efficient than most existing notebook processors.
But AMD is not only focused on notebook processor. AMD has also launched a new chip from the G-Series for embedded systems earlier this year, with the same low power consumption of up to 18W 9w. Now AMD has added two new chips into the ranks of the G-Series, with lower power consumption while still offering graphics capabilities that support DirectX 11.
AMD T40R, a 1 GHz single-core chip 64-bit which only requires power 5.5 Watts. AMD also offers dual-core version called T40E which has 6.4 Watts TDP. Both models include AMD Radeon HD 6250. This chip is designed for use in a system without a fan, including low-power business computer or mobile device.